School Management Committees

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School Management Committees: Successes, Challenges and Opportunities

Section 21 of the Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act 2009 (RTE), mandates the formation of School Management Committees (SMCs) in all elementary government, government-aided schools and special category schools in the country. The RTE Act envisions an SMC as the basic unit of a decentralised model of governance with active involvement of parents in the school’s functioning. Read more »

Publication Name: 
School Management Committees: Successes, Challenges and Opportunities
Publication Author: 
Accountability Initiative and Central Square Foundation

SSA Grant Receipt and Expenditures: Stories behind the Trends in Bihar

Posted on:30-03-12

Shailey Tucker, Accountability Initiative

Bihar’s elementary education budget has increased by over a quarter between 2009-10 and 2010-11. During this time, Bihar has achieved near-universal primary enrolment rates (DISE 2009-10) and, as a result of high increases in allocations for infsrastructure (PAISA Survey 2011) there are visible signs of construction of schools and additional classrooms across the state as well. According to the PAISA Survey 2011, the proportion of schools receiving the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) grants[1] greatly varies across districts. Funds largely begin arriving in schools from September onwards;[2] this occurs despite the fact that the school-year begins earlier in April. Read more »

All too many School Inspectors saying “all is well”?

Posted on:24-01-11

Shomikho Raha

Teacher absenteeism has been documented to be widespread and while the motivational reasons and drivers of this are complex (Ramachandran et al, 2005; Kremer et al., 2004), one factor that has permitted this is weak supervision or absence of inspections. Monitoring providers of services to hold them accountable is an important part of any service delivery system. Governments have acknowledged this and inspections have been taken particularly seriously by the government primary education system of Madhya Pradesh (MP) I recently visited (and more generally across states by the centrally sponsored Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan scheme). Has it worked? On paper at least, it has. Assigned to undertake inspections of teachers in schools within a district are the following list of officials in MP: the Cluster Academic Coordinator (CAC or Jan Shikshak), the principal of the Higher Secondary School who functions as Cluster Drawing-Disbursing Officer (DDO), the Block Education Officer (BEO), Block Academic Coordinator (BAC), Block Resource Centre Coordinator (BRCC), Assistant Project Coordinator (APC) at the district-level, District-Project Coordinator (DPC), District Education Officer (DEO) and his Assistant, the Joint Director (JD) as well as the CEO Block and CEO District from within the Rural Development Department. Considering that there are usually 3 BACs in any BRC Office, 4-5 APCs at the DPC Office and several more CACs, the number of officials functioning as inspectors at any block or district are consequently many more. Do teachers however feel that they are functioning in an Inspector Raj system? Thankfully for them at least, this is not necessarily the case.

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